[hɑːd] or [hɑrd]


(adj.) dried out; 'hard dry rolls left over from the day before' .

(adj.) unfortunate or hard to bear; 'had hard luck'; 'a tough break' .

(adj.) resisting weight or pressure .

(adj.) dispassionate; 'took a hard look'; 'a hard bargainer'; .

(adj.) (of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue raised toward or touching the velum; 'Russian distinguished between hard consonants and palatalized or soft consonants' .

(adj.) (of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source .

(adj.) being distilled rather than fermented; having a high alcoholic content; 'hard liquor' .

(adj.) very strong or vigorous; 'strong winds'; 'a hard left to the chin'; 'a knockout punch'; 'a severe blow' .

(adv.) with effort or force or vigor; 'the team played hard'; 'worked hard all day'; 'pressed hard on the lever'; 'hit the ball hard'; 'slammed the door hard'.

(adv.) to the full extent possible; all the way; 'hard alee'; 'the ship went hard astern'; 'swung the wheel hard left'.

(adv.) slowly and with difficulty; 'prejudices die hard'.

(adv.) causing great damage or hardship; 'industries hit hard by the depression'; 'she was severely affected by the bank's failure'.

(adv.) with firmness; 'held hard to the railing'.

(adv.) earnestly or intently; 'thought hard about it'; 'stared hard at the accused'.

(adv.) with pain or distress or bitterness; 'he took the rejection very hard'.

(adv.) very near or close in space or time; 'it stands hard by the railroad tracks'; 'they were hard on his heels'; 'a strike followed hard upon the plant's opening'.

丹尼斯编辑--From WordNet


(superl.) Not easily penetrated, cut, or separated into parts; not yielding to pressure; firm; solid; compact; -- applied to material bodies, and opposed to soft; as, hard wood; hard flesh; a hard apple.

(superl.) Difficult, mentally or judicially; not easily apprehended, decided, or resolved; as a hard problem.

(superl.) Difficult to accomplish; full of obstacles; laborious; fatiguing; arduous; as, a hard task; a disease hard to cure.

(superl.) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.

(superl.) Difficult to bear or endure; not easy to put up with or consent to; hence, severe; rigorous; oppressive; distressing; unjust; grasping; as, a hard lot; hard times; hard fare; a hard winter; hard conditions or terms.

(superl.) Difficult to please or influence; stern; unyielding; obdurate; unsympathetic; unfeeling; cruel; as, a hard master; a hard heart; hard words; a hard character.

(superl.) Not easy or agreeable to the taste; stiff; rigid; ungraceful; repelling; as, a hard style.

(superl.) Rough; acid; sour, as liquors; as, hard cider.

(superl.) Abrupt or explosive in utterance; not aspirated, sibilated, or pronounced with a gradual change of the organs from one position to another; -- said of certain consonants, as c in came, and g in go, as distinguished from the same letters in center, general, etc.

(superl.) Wanting softness or smoothness of utterance; harsh; as, a hard tone.

(superl.) Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.

(superl.) Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in the coloring or light and shade.

(adv.) With pressure; with urgency; hence, diligently; earnestly.

(adv.) With difficulty; as, the vehicle moves hard.

(adv.) Uneasily; vexatiously; slowly.

(adv.) So as to raise difficulties.

(adv.) With tension or strain of the powers; violently; with force; tempestuously; vehemently; vigorously; energetically; as, to press, to blow, to rain hard; hence, rapidly; as, to run hard.

(adv.) Close or near.

(v. t.) To harden; to make hard.

(n.) A ford or passage across a river or swamp.



a. [1]. Firm, solid, compact, impenetrable, unyielding, not soft.[2]. Difficult, embarrassing, perplexing, puzzling, knotty, intricate, not easily understood.[3]. Laborious, arduous, toilsome, fatiguing, wearying.[4]. Unfeeling, unkind, insensible, unsusceptible, cruel, oppressive, rigorous, severe, unyielding, inflexible, callous, obdurate, hard-hearted.[5]. Grievous, distressing, calamitous, painful, disagreeable, unpleasant.[6]. Inclement, stormy, tempestuous, cold.[7]. Harsh, rough, sour, acid.[8]. Coarse, unpalatable.[9]. Unfavorable, unprosperous, unpropitious.[10]. Stiff, constrained, forced, unnatural, ungraceful.[11]. Excessive, intemperate.

ad. [1]. Close, near.[2]. Laboriously, diligently, earnestly, incessantly, energetically.[3]. With difficulty, not easily.[4]. Distressfully, painfully, severely, rigorously.[5]. Vehemently, forcibly, violently.



SYN:Firm, dense, solid, compact, unyielding, impenetrable, arduous, difficult,grievous, distressing, rigorous, oppressive, exacting, unfeeling, stubborn,harsh, forced, constrained, inexplicable, flinty, severe, {[cmel]?}, obdurate,hardened, callous

ANT:Soft, fluid, liquid, elastic, brittle, penetrable, easy, mild, lenient, tender,ductile, uninvolved, simple, intelligible, perspicuous



adj. not easily penetrated firm solid: difficult to understand or accomplish: violent vehement: rigorous: close earnest industrious: coarse scanty: stingy niggardly: difficult to bear painful: unjust: difficult to please: unfeeling: severe: stiff: constrained: intractable resistant in some use as water &c.: strong spirituous: (of silk) without having the natural gum boiled off: surd or breathed as opposed to sonant or voiced.—n. a firm beach or foreshore: hard labour.—adv. with urgency vigour &c.: earnestly forcibly: with difficulty: close near as in Hard by.—adv. Hard-a-lee close to the lee-side &c.—adj. Hard′-and-fast′ rigidly laid down and adhered to.—adv. Hard aport! a command instructing the helmsman to turn the tiller to the left or port side of the ship thus causing the ship to swerve to the right or starboard.—ns. Hard′-bake a sweetmeat made of boiled sugar and almonds; Hard′beam the hornbeam.—adjs. Hard′-billed having a hard bill or beak—of birds; Hard′-bitt′en given to hard biting tough in fight; Hard′-cured cured thoroughly as fish by drying in the sun.—n. Hard′-drink′er a constant drunkard.—adj. Hard′-earned earned with toil or difficulty.—v.t. Hard′en to make hard or harder: to make firm: to strengthen: to confirm in wickedness: to make insensible.—v.i. to become hard or harder either lit. or fig.—adj. Hard′ened made hard unfeeling.—n. Hard′ener.—adj. Hard′-fav′oured having coarse features.—n. Hard′-fav′ouredness.—adj. Hard′-feat′ured of hard coarse or forbidding features.—n. Hard′-feat′uredness.—adjs. Hard′-fist′ed having hard or strong fists or hands: close-fisted: niggardly; Hard′-fought sorely contested; Hard′-gott′en obtained with difficulty; Hard′-grained having a close firm grain: uninviting.—n. Hard′-hack the steeple-bush an erect shrub of the rose family with rose-coloured or white flowers.—adjs. Hard′-hand′ed having hard hands: rough: severe; Hard′-head′ed shrewd intelligent; Hard′-heart′ed having a hard or unfeeling heart: cruel.—adv. Hard′-heart′edly.—n. Hard′-heart′edness.—adj. Hard′ish somewhat hard.—n. Hard′-lā′bour labour imposed on certain classes of criminals during their imprisonment.—adv. Hard′ly with difficulty: scarcely not quite: severely harshly.—adj. Hard′-mouthed having a mouth hard or insensible to the bit: not easily managed.—n. Hard′-pan the hard detritus often underlying the superficial soil: the lowest level.—adjs. Hard′-ruled (Shak.) ruled with difficulty; Hard′-run greatly pressed; Hard′-set beset by difficulty: rigid; Hard′-shell having a hard shell: rigidly orthodox.—ns. Hard′ship a hard state or that which is hard to bear as toil injury &c.; Hard′-tack ship-biscuit.—adj. Hard′-vis′aged of a hard coarse or forbidding visage.—ns. Hard′ware trade name for all sorts of articles made of the baser metals such as iron or copper; Hard′wareman.—adj. Hard′-won won with toil and difficulty.—n.pl. Hard′wood-trees forest trees of comparatively slow growth producing compact hard timber as oak ash elm walnut beech birch &c.—Hard hit seriously hurt as by a loss of money: deeply smitten with love; Hard lines a hard lot; Hard metal an alloy of two parts of copper with one of tin for gun metal; Hard money money emphatically prop. coin; Hard of hearing pretty deaf; Hard swearing swearing (as a witness) persistently to what is false perjury; Hard up short of money.—Be hard put to it to be in great straits or difficulty; Die hard to die only after a desperate struggle for life.





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